Like all the rituals of Islam, Abraham was the first receiver of Hajj ritual. He passed these rituals from one generation to another. Corruption found its way to these rituals over the years. We are blessed because God sent us a messenger from among us to purify and clarify for us these rituals after a long period of corruption.
[5:19] O people of the scripture, our messenger has come to you, to explain things to you, after a period of time without messengers, lest you say, "We did not receive any preacher or warner." A preacher and warner has now come to you. GOD is Omnipotent.
[14:4] We did not send any messenger except (to preach) in the tongue of his people, in order to clarify things for them. GOD then sends astray whomever He wills, and guides whomever He wills. He is the Almighty, the Most Wise.
The Rites of Hajj in the Quran
The commencement of Hajj
[2:189] They ask you about the phases of the moon! Say, "They provide a timing device for the people, and determine the time of Hajj." It is not righteous to beat around the bush; righteousness is attained by upholding the commandments and by being straightforward. You shall observe GOD, that you may succeed.
The 12th month of the Islamic calendar is called Zul-Hijja and it is the first of the four consecutive months 12th , 1st , 2nd and 3rd during which God decreed the Hajj. The birth of the new moon of the month of Zul Al-Hijja signals the beginning of the four months of Hajj.
The Duration of Hajj
The duration of Hajj is given in 2:197 which reads:
[2:197] Hajj shall be observed in the specified months. Whoever sets out to observe Hajj shall refrain from sexual intercourse, misconduct, and arguments throughout Hajj. Whatever good you do, GOD is fully aware thereof. As you prepare your provisions for the journey, the best provision is righteousness. You shall observe Me, O you who possess intelligence.
Some of the Muslim scholars corrupted the law of God and reduced the time of Hajj from four months to the first ten days of the 12th month. They've justified their claims by corrupting the meaning of verses such as:
[22:28] ....They shall commemorate God’s name during the specified days .
[2:203] ......You shall commemorate God for a number of days.
They deliberately ignored the fact that Hajj itself can be completed in few days but observed during the four specified months. The example of fasting the month of Ramadan, makes it clear as God describes this fasting also as specific days although the ritual of fasting is for the whole month.
[2:184] Specific days (are designated for fasting); if one is ill or traveling, ....."
Abstentions (Ehraam) during Hajj
Hunting is prohibited during Hajj.
[5:1] ...You shall not permit hunting throughout Hajj pilgrimage. GOD decrees whatever He wills.
See also 5:2 and 5:95
All warfare is prohibited in the Sacred months of Hajj except in self defense.
[2:217] They ask you about the Sacred Months and fighting therein: say, ‘Fighting therein is a sacrilege.
Sexual intercourse, misconduct and arguments prohibited
[2:197] ....Whoever sets out to observe Hajj shall refrain from sexual intercourse, misconduct, and arguments throughout Hajj."
During Hajj, abstaining from cutting one’s hair is a requirement as per 2:196
[2:196] You shall observe the complete rites of Hajj and `Umrah for GOD. If you are prevented, you shall send an offering, and do not resume cutting your hair until your offering has reached its destination."
The ‘Tawaaf’ (circling the Ka'ba)
Tawaf is mentioned in the following verse.
[22:29] "They shall complete their obligations, fulfill their vows, and visit the ancient shrine (Tawaf)."
The Safa and Marwah
[2:158] The knolls of Safa and Marwah are among the rites decreed by GOD. Anyone who observes Hajj or `Umrah commits no error by traversing the distance between them. If one volunteers more righteous works, then GOD is Appreciative, Omniscient."
Mount Arafat and Muzdalifah
These two rites are mentioned in 2:198:
[2:198] When you file from `Arafat, you shall commemorate GOD at the Sacred Location (of Muzdalifah)."
The symbolic stoning of Satan
The stoning ceremonies symbolize rejection of Satan polytheism and are done by throwing 7 pebbles at each of three stations while glorifying God. (15:34). The messenger of the covenant confirmed the stoning as part of Hajj as much as he confirmed that the Hajj is four months and named these months for us.
The visit to Mena is mentioned in the following verse:
[2:203] You shall commemorate God for a number of days (in Mena). Whoever who hastens to do this in two days commits no sin, and whoever stays longer commits no sin, as long as righteousness is maintained."
The animal offerings during hajj, see 22:36
[22:36] The animal offerings are among the rites decreed by GOD for your own good. You shall mention GOD's name on them while they are standing in line. Once they are offered for sacrifice, you shall eat therefrom and feed the poor and the needy. This is why we subdued them for you, that you may show your appreciation.